VW GTI: 45 Years of Evolution

Volkswagen only planned to make 5000 units of the first Golf GTI when they unveiled it at the Frankfurt International Motor Show back in September of 1975. However, some 461,690 units were sold by the time the Mk1 was replaced by the Mk2.

Since the original went on sale in the summer of 1976, the GTI has gone through seven generations—with an eighth on the horizon—and, although a lot has changed between then and now, one thing has remained: a manual transmission has always been available. 

We're no stranger to the GTI, either, as we recently track tested a Mk7 GTI and also acquired a rare, Callaway-turbocharged Mk1 GTI.

Read the full release below:

Wolfsburg, Germany — Launched at the International Motor Show (IAA) in Frankfurt in September 1975, the first Golf GTI was fresh and wild. As of the summer of 1976, it stormed into an automotive category that hadn’t actually existed until that moment—sporty front-wheel-drive compact cars, or hot hatches. Originally, 5,000 units had been planned, but the affordable Golf GTI turned the automotive order upside down, bringing driving dynamics previously relegated to the world of expensive sports cars to the masses. Consequently, a total of 461,690 Golf GTI Mk1 models rolled off the production lines. With its six successors to date, it has become the world’s most successful compact sports car.

Golf GTI Mark 1

In 1974, half a dozen staff members at Volkswagen, including Anton Konrad, Volkswagen’s then chief press officer, concocted a secret plan to develop a sporty version of the Golf. There was no official mandate to develop the Sport Golf, but Hermann Hablitzel, Board Member for Technology, made sure the project kept going. Initial prototypes emerged, including a vehicle with a carbureted engine generating 100 horsepower. In early March 1975, Hablitzel officially presented the Sport Golf project to Toni Schmücker, Chairman of the Board of Management, who gave it the green light. As a result, the clandestine Sport Golf officially became development order EA195. The vehicle was to celebrate its world premiere at the International Motor Show (IAA) in Frankfurt in September and so the project picked up speed. EA195 took a crucial step forward once it was finally paired with the right power unit—a fuel-injected engine generating 110 hp. However, the Sport Golf didn’t even have a name yet. Suggestions that were discussed included TS and GTS, but GTI won the race. At the same time, chief designer Herbert Schäfer—a keen golfer—reinvented the shifter knob by simply attaching a golf ball to the GTI’s selector rod.

The car was showcased in Frankfurt, receiving an enthusiastic media response. In June 1976, the Golf GTI Mk1, priced at 13,850 German marks, was launched in Germany before going on to enjoy global success. The initial plan was to manufacture 5,000 units of this special product line to at least recoup the cost of development and the investment in production equipment. However, things turned out rather differently as neither Konrad, Hablitzel, nor Schmücker had anticipated the GTI’s level of popularity. The GTI had a top speed of 113 mph, black wheelarch extensions, a black frame around the rear window, red edging around the radiator grille, plaid sport seats, the golf ball shifter knob, and a sport steering wheel. The ultimate crowning glory of the product line was the Pirelli-GTI, a special edition generating 110 hp. This marked the first chapter in what remains the world’s most successful compact sports car.

1984 – Golf GTI Mark 2

The Golf GTI Mk2 perpetuated the concept and design DNA of the first generation. The GTI’s insignia —in particular the red strip in the radiator grille and the plaid sport seats—became classic design features and the newcomer ultimately also became an icon. In 1984, the vehicle’s output briefly dropped to 107 hp as a result of the fitment of a catalytic converter. Two years later, Volkswagen offset the loss of power with a new 16-valve engine generating 129 hp. In 1990 the G-Lader supercharged engine in the Golf GTI G60 boosted its output to 160 hp.

1991 – Golf GTI Mark 3

Volkswagen transferred the GTI insignia to the third generation in 1991. The second GTI generation’s dual headlights had now been concealed behind a shared lens and the vehicle’s output started from 115 hp. One year later, the engine output was increased to 150 hp thanks to a new 16-valve engine. In 1996 a turbocharged diesel version (TDI®) generating 110 hp enhanced the GTI concept. Years later, gasoline and diesel engines would be divided once and for all into GTI and GTD. In 1996, Volkswagen also launched the “20 years of GTI” anniversary model.

1998 – Golf GTI Mark 4

The fourth generation of the GTI, introduced in 1998, was modest in terms of GTI styling, and was the first and only GTI to do away with classic cues including the red strip in the radiator grille. Nevertheless, the vehicle still became a design icon, celebrated today as the starting point of a new, cleaner era of vehicle design. In terms of technology, the 150-hp Golf GTI Mk4 was a car that kept competitors at arm’s length with its agility and quality. The gasoline engines—with four and five cylinders—generated up to 170 hp while diesel engines delivered a maximum of 150 hp. In 2001, Volkswagen celebrated the icon’s first quarter century with the turbocharged “25 years of GTI” special edition generating 180 hp.

2004 – Golf GTI Mark 5

In September 2003, Volkswagen launched a magnificent comeback of the classic in Frankfurt with a prototype of the fifth-generation GTI. More than ever before, GTI became synonymous with outstanding compact-car handling. In September 2004, Volkswagen showcased the production version at the Paris Motor Show, and the launch of the Golf GTI Mk5 followed in November. Its hallmarks were a significantly sharper look, a 200-hp turbocharged engine and outstanding handling. Volkswagen propelled the GTI concept into the future with this version. The new Denver design wheels and the black, V-shaped radiator grille were particularly striking features. The new turbocharged engine also delivered plenty of power, propelling the GTI (with a manual gearbox) from zero to 62 mph in a mere 7.2 seconds. Fitting the vehicle with the new dual-clutch automatic transmission (DSG®) cut the time to just 6.9 seconds. The vehicle’s top speed was an impressive 146 mph. The slogan in the first brochure read “high-performance sport has never been this much fun!” On the iconic sports car’s 30th anniversary in 2006, its creators introduced GTI aficionados to the “30 years of GTI” edition, which generated 230 hp. Featuring the same engine, the reincarnation of the “Pirelli GTI” was launched in 2007.

2009 – Golf GTI Mark 6

The sixth generation of the Golf GTI followed in 2009, with racing legend Hans-Joachim Stuck in charge of honing the vehicle’s chassis, which featured the electronic differential lock (XDS®) for the first time. With a top speed of 149 mph, this GTI featured a turbocharged engine generating 210 hp. This generation featured a sound generator and a new exhaust system with a tailpipe on either side, delivering sound to match the drive experience. In 2011, the vehicle was made available as a convertible for the first time, and marked its 35th anniversary with the “Golf GTI Edition 35”, generating 235 hp. Volkswagen presented the new GTI flagship at the Nürburgring, and it was the first to come very close to reaching 250 km/h (155 mph), hitting 153 mph. Thanks to a power-to-weight ratio of 13 lb/hp, the GTI had become faster than ever before, reaching 62 mph from rest in only 6.6 seconds.

2013 – Golf GTI Mk7

The seventh generation of the GTI was launched with two engine outputs for the first time in spring 2013. The basic version delivered 220 hp, while the Golf GTI Performance could unleash 230 hp. The latter was the first Golf GTI to feature an electronically-controlled torque-sensing limited-slip differential and to be constructed on the modular transverse matrix (MQB). This new technical platform cut the GTI’s weight by up to 92 lb compared with its predecessor, making it even more agile. The 230-hp version with a manual transmission was the first Golf GTI to reach 250 km/h (155 mph). It formed the basis for the Golf GTI Clubsport, presented in action at Portimão race circuit in November 2015, which was capable of delivering up to 290 hp thanks to an overboost function. It took a mere 5.9 seconds to accelerate the vehicle from 0 to 62 mph. A year later, the Golf GTI Clubsport S—with an output of 310 hp—smashed the previous record for front-wheel drive vehicles around the Nürburgring’s Nordschleife  in 07:49:21 minutes, reaching a top speed of 164 mph.

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Comments
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noddaz
noddaz UltraDork
5/14/20 2:20 p.m.

And fun was had!

Thank you for the write up!

Scott

David S. Wallens
David S. Wallens Editorial Director
5/14/20 2:32 p.m.

I had an A1. I need to find a photo so I can share with the rest of the class. Its original grille is still hanging on the garage wall. 

DirtyBird222
DirtyBird222 UberDork
5/14/20 2:50 p.m.

I've always been a huge fan of the GTI. Great write-up! 

nderwater
nderwater UltimaDork
5/14/20 3:05 p.m.

Bravo to whoever provided those terrific pencil renderings!

SVreX (Forum Supporter)
SVreX (Forum Supporter) MegaDork
5/14/20 3:08 p.m.

Keep watching... My A1 will be appearing here for sale soon!

David S. Wallens
David S. Wallens Editorial Director
5/14/20 3:48 p.m.
SVreX (Forum Supporter) said:

Keep watching... My A1 will be appearing here for sale soon!

Tell us more? 

SVreX (Forum Supporter)
SVreX (Forum Supporter) MegaDork
5/14/20 4:08 p.m.

In reply to David S. Wallens :

I will, when I write the ad!! cheeky

'84 GTI, good shape, 2.0L ABA with 16V heads. Great fun!  Truckload of spare parts. (Including Berg cup style flares and fenders)

ChrisTropea
ChrisTropea Associate Editor
5/14/20 4:15 p.m.

I miss my Mk4 GTI with the VR6. It was a blast to drive. The Mk7 GTI is a tempting upgrade now with prices coming down. 

ZOO (Forum Supporter)
ZOO (Forum Supporter) UltraDork
5/14/20 4:35 p.m.

I tried my hardest to make my 1982 Rabbit into something similar to a GTI . . . I couldn't do anything about the colour (beige), or the number of doors (4), of the number of gears in the transmission (4).  But I did take the bumpers off, cut a coil off each spring, invest in KYB and Tokico shocks and struts, and found some big Neuspeed sway bars.  Oh yeah, I drilled out the airbox, and added an obnoxious exhaust, too.

Now I have a Mark 7 GTI.  The car it reminds me most of is my E36 M3 (yeah, I got flamed on Reddit for that comment).  But hear me out -- they are similar size, with similar power and torque levels.  The big difference is, of course, FWD versus RWD.  But the LSD in the GTI is excellent.

einy (Forum Supporter)
einy (Forum Supporter) HalfDork
5/14/20 7:46 p.m.

Still missing my Mk 2 even with its crappy 8v engine, but loving my current Mk 6 that I owned since new in 2011 every time I drive it.  Not as care free as any of our various Hondas, but so rewarding to drive.

David S. Wallens
David S. Wallens Editorial Director
5/15/20 8:22 a.m.

VW just shared more details for the Mk 8 GTI, so I'm just going to paste the entire release here: 

  • Pure, efficient, high-tech hot hatch for the digital age, with 242 horsepower
  • Standard electronically-controlled, torque-sensing limited-slip differential (VAQ) and Vehicle Dynamics Manager
  • Digital Cockpit has new functionality as part of a suite of networked displays 

Wolfsburg, Germany — The Golf GTI is considered an icon around the world, with great handling and a pure design DNA. Launched at the Frankfurt International Motor Show (IAA) in September 1975, it created an automotive category that hadn’t actually existed until that moment—sporty front-wheel-drive compacts, or hot hatches. With its six successors to date, it has become the world’s most successful hot hatch and more than 2.3 million units had been produced by the end of 2019. That’s a phenomenon.

However, revolutionary ideas require evolutionary development. The first Golf GTI’s DNA lives on to this day in the agile front-wheel drive chassis, sporty performance, intuitive ergonomics, and authentic design. Some 45 years after the first GTI’s world première, Volkswagen is now launching the eighth generation. The first Golf GTI of the digital age will be a brand new, networked, and fully-fledged sporting vehicle.

The eighth Golf GTI is the most digital GTI of all time. Its entire electronic architecture has been created from scratch. And that changes everything. The new generation of software and hardware is tangible inside and when driving the vehicle. On the interior, drivers have access to a digitally-networked world of displays and controls. This enables the driver to customize the visual look and technology of their Golf GTI more intuitively, and in greater detail, than ever before. The driver can decide on functions including the color range of the background lighting and the individual configuration of the infotainment system, the Digital Cockpit and the engine sound—and they also have a greater influence on their Golf GTI’s handling characteristics than previously.

The new Vehicle Dynamics Manager control system makes its debut in the Golf GTI, controlling the XDS® electronic differential lock, the VAQ electronically-controlled, torque-sensing, limited-slip differential that is now standard, and also the lateral dynamics of the optional DCC® adaptive damping system. Drivers can customize their setup using the standard driving mode selection feature and a more finely adjustable DCC system. Sharper driving dynamics guarantee an enhanced and unadulterated driving experience as the eighth Golf GTI handles extremely accurately, virtually eliminating understeer.  

The new Golf GTI is powered by a 242-horsepower (180 kW) 2.0-liter turbocharged direct-injection EA888 evo4 TSI® engine, with maximum torque of 273 pound-feet (370 Nm). The TSI unit is coupled with a standard manual six-speed transmission or an optional seven-speed dual-clutch automatic (DSG®). The electronically limited top speed is 155 mph in both cases.

Compared with its predecessor, the new Golf GTI body has become lower, longer and even sportier. Designers created each body part from scratch and worked with the aerodynamicists to hone the vehicle in the wind tunnel. The drag coefficient (Cd) of the basic model dropped from 0.3 to 0.275 and the aerodynamics have been improved by a range of individual measures: Cd-optimized exterior mirrors; aerodynamic corners; a bespoke GTI roof spoiler; extensive underbody panels; and aerodynamically refined wheelarch linings.

The car also features a range of traditional and completely new exterior features. The red strip in the radiator grille is a must for a GTI and stretches across the vehicle’s entire front end above the radiator grille, merging with the fenders. For the first time, the red GTI strip is refined by a parallel LED crossbar below it, which gives the Golf GTI a new and unmistakable light signature. The exhaust system’s tailpipes, arranged either side of the rear diffuser, as well as chrome/red GTI badges on the front fenders, the hatch and on the radiator grille are also specific to the Golf GTI.

Interior highlights include new sport seats with integrated head restraints that are reminiscent of the first Golf GTI thanks to their red stitching and a tartan “Scalepaper” style fabric on the seat and backrest areas. The new multifunction sport steering wheel has been specifically designed with a red appliqué and the GTI badge. The new engine Start/Stop button comes as standard in the Golf GTI and pulses red until the engine has been started.

Every new Golf GTI is fitted with assist systems such as the Lane Assist lane keeping system, Autonomous Emergency Braking (Front Assist) with Pedestrian and Cyclist Monitoring, the XDS electronic differential lock and also, for Europe, Car2X (local communication with other vehicles and the traffic infrastructure). In the interior, the Digital Cockpit and standard 8.25-inch Composition Media infotainment system have been digitalized and integrated into a network, providing We Connect and We Connect Plus online services and functions. Other standard features include a multifunction steering wheel, single-zone automatic climate control, the Press & Drive comfort start system, Bluetooth mobile phone pairing, LED headlights, taillight clusters, and LED daytime running lights, LED reading lights and two USB-C ports. This range of equipment has been extended significantly for the GTI.

Design

The Golf GTI is an icon. “Each member of our team is aware of the responsibility on their shoulders when developing a new Golf. Evolving an icon like this is an enormous challenge but also the most exciting thing that can happen to you as a designer”, explains Klaus Bischoff, Head of Volkswagen Group Design and the Volkswagen brand’s Design department. He continues: “The Golf GTI also requires an evolution or even a reinvention of the very specific cues of this sports car. And I think that we have done a particularly good job with the new Golf GTI.”

It goes without saying that the eighth Golf GTI will carry the DNA of the original GTI into the future. Bischoff adds: “The new GTI is a design statement; it merges a dynamic, sporty character with uncompromising functionality.” The eighth-generation Golf is again based on the MQB modular transverse architecture, in this case allowing for even sportier proportions. Bischoff adds: “The new Golf GTI boasts a very low, visual center of gravity which we achieved through the wide air intakes at the front and the striking shoulder line. This superior, sporty character gives aesthetic expression to the vehicle’s potential.”

The design of the new Golf GTI embodies attention to detail. An LED strip in the headlight mirrors the red line that runs across the front of the car when the daytime running lights are activated—or when the driver approaches with the key. Another striking and unmistakable feature is the large, single-piece honeycomb lower air intake grille. The new GTI graphics also include optional foglights that have now been integrated into the intake in an X shape.

The 17-inch Richmond aluminum-alloy wheels are standard and also available in 18-inch form. There are other options in 17-, 18- and 19-inch sizes. Red brake calipers peek behind the wheels, another GTI trademark. A bespoke spoiler extends the roof line at the very top of the vehicle silhouette, while the signature C-pillar remains, shared with the regular Golf.  

The new Golf has a powerful shoulder section and a strong rear end design, carried over to the GTI. The GTI lettering is now positioned centrally under the new Volkswagen emblem rather than on the driver’s side as it was before. The Golf GTI appears to be even lower than less powerful Golf models thanks to the roof-mounted spoiler.

Right from the outset, Volkswagen created distinctive, unmistakable GTI styling cues with the multitude of interior details—the sport steering wheel with three silver double spokes and recessed Wolfsburg emblem, the golf ball shift lever, and plaid GTI sport seats with black side bolsters.

The sport steering wheel of yesteryear has been transformed into a new multifunction wheel with touch controls. The three silver spokes have been retained, with a red outline on the lower spoke. The plaid seat design is now called Scalepaper (featuring red seams with grey and black plaid), with all the decorative seams and edging also being picked out in red.

The Golf GTI’s digital displays start up as soon as the doors are opened. They are a fusion of the standard Digital Cockpit and the Infotainment system. Composition Media, featuring an 8.25-inch screen, is installed in this vehicle as standard while the 10-inch Discover Pro system is available as an option. Discover Pro merges with the Digital Cockpit to form the Innovision Cockpit, offering further enhanced functionality. Regardless of which infotainment system is fitted, the visual and functional fusion of systems creates a new and consistent digital architecture. Background lighting, which comes as standard, embeds the displays and all other illuminated interior areas (dash, door trim, storage compartment, footwell) in a spectrum of 30 configurable colors.

Running gear

“The Golf GTI has always been synonymous with pure driving pleasure. Few other vehicles in this category offer a similarly finely tuned balance between sportiness and comfort,” says Karsten Schebsdat, Manager Vehicle Dynamics and Chassis Control Systems. “Considering the Golf GTI Mk7 already handled great, we aimed to further enhance the driving pleasure of the Mk8 Golf GTI with even more direct steering response and handling. And we have succeeded.”

This is a new, enhanced GTI experience. “We owe this to elements including the new Vehicle Dynamics Manager that centrally coordinates all electromechanical running gear functions,” Schebsdat says. “Thanks to the combination of new running gear plus the VAQ and the Vehicle Dynamics Manager we were able to elevate the Golf GTI’s outstanding overall performance to an even higher level.“

The control arm bearings, springs and bump stops on the front suspension have been reconfigured, as have the damping hydraulics. The front suspension weight has also been cut by nearly 7 pounds thanks to a new aluminum subframe optimized to provide maximum rigidity. The front axle spring rate has been increased by five percent in comparison to the Golf GTI Mk 7.

The rear axle also features a new bearing and spring setup, with reconfigured helper springs and damper bearings. As is the case for the front axle, the rear axle also features new damping hydraulics. The spring rate at the rear axle has been increased by 15 percent compared with the Golf GTI Mk7.

The Vehicle Dynamics Manager coordinates and activates the functions of the electronically-controlled limited-slip differential, the electronic XDS differential lock, and the adaptive damping system. In this process, adapting the individual wheel damping (200 times a second) guarantees particularly agile and accurate handling, virtually eliminating understeer. This is partially due to the VAQ being able to increase torque in Sport mode. At a race track, it is possible to adapt the stability control (ESC) in two stages. In ESC Sport mode, the ESC thresholds and traction control (ASR) slip thresholds are increased to reduce the intensity of interventions. In ESC Off mode, ambitious drivers can deactivate ESC altogether. However, Front Assist and Swerve Assist reactivate ESC in emergencies.

The VAQ torque-sensing limited-slip differential offers benefits including a variable degree of intervention, full integration into the Vehicle Dynamics Manager, and ESC, EDS and XDS+ functions. This makes it possible to completely avoid interference with the steering, as is the case with mechanical locking differentials. Thanks to a multi-plate clutch, the VAQ optimizes grip and handling in fast corners, thus enhancing the performance and ultimately providing additional driving pleasure.

The DCC adaptive damping system continuously reacts to the road surface and driving situation while taking account of various inputs including steering, braking, and acceleration. By means of the set driving profile mode, the driver can influence the reduction in body motion as desired. The required damping is calculated for each wheel and adjusted at the four dampers within fractions of a second. This ensures that DCC always provides the highest level of driving comfort and ideal driving dynamics in conjunction with the Vehicle Dynamics Manager.

In the latest DCC generation, the vehicle setup can be extended in INDIVIDUAL mode to go beyond the existing range of the fixed COMFORT, ECO and SPORT modes. The driver can accurately set and store their personal driving profile using a digital slider. Beyond the COMFORT setting, the body is “decoupled” from the road surface as much as possible, thus boosting comfort. Beyond SPORT mode, there is an extended setting range with maximum damping for minimized body movements and extremely direct handling for that unbridled GTI feeling.

The progressive variable-rate steering system is installed as standard in the new Golf GTI. This is essentially differentiated from the basic steering system by variable steering rack and pinion gearing as well as a more powerful electric motor. This system has also been enhanced, with a more direct ratio and new software and software algorithms. The variable ratio on the steering significantly reduces the effort required when maneuvering and parking, but on winding country roads the steering is more direct. From lock to lock, there’s a mere 2.1 turns.  

 

About Volkswagen

Founded in 1955, Volkswagen of America, Inc. is an operating unit of Volkswagen Group of America and a subsidiary of Volkswagen AG, with headquarters in Herndon, Virginia. Volkswagen’s operations in the United States include research and development, parts and vehicle processing, parts distribution centers, sales, marketing and service offices, financial service centers, and its state-of-the-art manufacturing facility in Chattanooga, Tennessee. The Volkswagen Group is one of the world's largest producers of passenger cars and Europe's largest automaker. Volkswagen sells the Arteon, Atlas, Atlas Cross Sport, Golf, Golf GTI, Jetta, Jetta GLI, Passat, and Tiguan vehicles through more than 600 independent U.S. dealers. Visit Volkswagen online at www.vw.com or media.vw.com to learn more.

 

David S. Wallens
David S. Wallens Editorial Director
5/15/20 8:22 a.m.

docwyte
docwyte UberDork
5/15/20 9:09 a.m.

Super happy I bought my Mk7.5 R after seeing what VW did with the interior on the new Mk8.  I have no desire to have an interior with entirely touch controls.

I miss my 91 2l 16v GTi, that was my first real car, I kept it for 8 years and did a G60 motor swap on it.  Wish I'd kept it... 

SVreX, your Mk1 sounds interesting, ping me when you have the ad up

David S. Wallens
David S. Wallens Editorial Director
5/15/20 1:23 p.m.

In reply to docwyte :

A 2.0L 16v A2 GTI is pretty sweet. Please don't tell me it was that aqua color. 

84FSP
84FSP SuperDork
5/16/20 8:33 p.m.

I'd be down to buy nice prints of the GTI's.  So cool.

MrFancypants
MrFancypants New Reader
5/16/20 8:38 p.m.

I've owned my 2010 since 2009. You could count me as a fan.

 

dxman92
dxman92 HalfDork
5/19/20 10:49 p.m.

Great write-up. Happy they still offer three pedals.

mad_machine (Forum Supporter)
mad_machine (Forum Supporter) MegaDork
5/20/20 10:44 a.m.

My Grandmother always had a penchant for fast cars. All through the 60s they were big block GM cars and even a Nova SS. She suprised us all when she came to visit driving a diminutive little VW Rabbit with the GTI badge on the back. She had totalled her last big caddy a month before and had just gotten out of her whiplash collar and could drive again. She loved that little car, it was quick (but not fast she would mention) but could handle better than anything she had ever owned. She also loved it's utility with the hatchback.

 

I think I fell in love with hatchbacks that day for the same reason. It is a shame in a couple of years when my uncle needed a new car, she gave it to him and he promptly ran it into the ground.

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